The human mind, endowed with the powers of generalization and abstraction, sees not only green-grass, discriminating it from other things and finding it fair to look upon , but sees that it is green as well as being grass. But how powerful, how stimulating to the very faculty that produced it, was the invention of the adjective: no spell or incantation in Faerie is more potent.
And that is not surprising: such incantations might indeed be said to be only another view of adjectives, a part of speech in a mythical grammar. The mind that thought of light, heavy, grey, yellow, still, swift, also conceived of magic that would make heavy things light and able to fly, turn grey lead into yellow gold, and the still rock into a swift water.
If it could do the one, it could do the other; it inevitably did both. When we can take green from grass, blue from heaven, and red from blood, we have already an enchanter's power—upon one plane; and the desire to wield that power in the world external to our minds awakes. It does not follow that we shall use that power well upon any plane. But in such "fantasy," as it is called, new form is made; Faerie begins; Man becomes a sub-creator. Tolkien's mythopoetic observations have been noted for their similarity to the Judeo-Christian concept of Logos or "The Word", which is said to act as both "the [ At the time that Tolkien debated the usefulness of myth and mythopoeia with C.
Lewis in , Lewis was a theist  and liked but was skeptical of mythology , taking the position that myths were "lies and therefore worthless, even though 'breathed through silver ' ".
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Lewis wrote, "The story of Christ is simply a true myth: a myth working on us in the same way as the others, but with this tremendous difference that it really happened. Lewis's mythopoeic intent is often confused with allegory, where the characters and world of Narnia would stand in direct equivalence with concepts and events from Christian theology and history, but Lewis repeatedly emphasized that an allegorical reading misses the point the mythopoeia of the Narnia stories.
Lewis also created a mythopoeia in his neo-medieval representation of extra-planetary travel and planetary "bodies" in the Cosmic or Space Trilogy. William Blake 's "prophetic works" e. Blake was an important influence on Aleister Crowley 's Thelemic writings, whose dazzling pantheon of 'Godforms' and radically re-cast figures from Egyptian mythology and the Book of Revelation constitute an allegorical mythology of their own.
Current attempts to produce a new mythology through collaborative means include the movement known as New or Metamodern Classicism.
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According to its website, metamodern classicism seeks to create "a vast, collaborative cultural project, uniting Painters, Poets, Musicians, Architects, and all Artists in one mythopoeic endeavor. Our goal is none other than a living mythological tradition: interactive, dynamic, evolving—and relevant. The Cthulhu Mythos of H. Lovecraft was likewise taken up by numerous collaborators and admirers. Stories by George MacDonald and H. Rider Haggard are in this category. Lewis praised both for their "mythopoeic" gifts.
Eliot 's The Waste Land was a deliberate attempt to model a 20th-century mythology patterned after the birth-rebirth motif described by Frazer.
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The repeated motifs of Jorge Luis Borges 's fictional works mirrors , labyrinths , tigers , etc. Howard from contain imagined worlds vast enough to be universes in themselves, [ citation needed ] as did the science fiction of E. Fritz Leiber from the s also created a vast world, similar to that of Robert E.
Howard 's; vast enough to be a universe, and indeed was a fictional omniverse. It is stated that the two main protagonists, Fafhrd and the Grey Mouser "travelled through universes and lands" and eventually going on to say they ended up back in the fictional city of Lankhmar. Star Maker by Olaf Stapledon is a rare attempt at a cohesive science fiction mythos. In the s through the s, Roger Zelazny authored many mythopoetic novels, such as Lord of Light. Zelazny's Chronicles of Amber is a ten-volume series of particular note for its mythic and metaphysical themes.
Greg Stafford created the world and attendant mythology of Glorantha from , which formed the basis for a role-playing game see Runequest and Heroquest , though its literary scope far exceeds its genre. Stephen King 's novels and short stories form an intricate and highly developed mythos , drawing in part on the Lovecraftian, with characters such as the demonic Crimson King and Randall Flagg appearing in several otherwise unrelated works, as well as a supernatural force known only as "The White".
The Dark Tower series serves as a linchpin for this mythos, connecting with practically all of King's various storylines in one way or another. Rowling 's Harry Potter book series, as well as the series of films adapted from her work, exist within a mythopoetic universe Rowling created by combining elements from various mythologies with her own original fantasy. His other mythopoetic works, The Kane Chronicles and Magnus Chase and the Gods of Asgard are also similar except the fact that they revolve around Egyptian and Norse mythologies.
Riordan's works amalgamate elements of day-to-day life of teenagers like coming of age , ADHD , love and teenage angst into modern interpretations of Egyptian and Graeco-Roman mythologies and his own fantasy. Phillip Pullman created an alternate version of the Judeo-Christian mythology in His Dark Materials , and its sequel series The Book of Dust , where the Angels have more or less created a facade to fool the mortals. The Elder Scrolls and its associated literature present a world where mythic visions of the world have mystical power, where archetypal myths are seen as playing out over and over again throughout history, where one can take on the identity of another by assuming "mantling" the place that other has as a figure in the mythology of the world, and where the creation of myths can be seen as an act of mystically rewriting reality.
Indian author Amish Tripathi 's Shiva trilogy and its prequel series, Ram Chandra series chronicle the life and exloits of Hindu Gods, Shiva and Rama recast as Great, historical human figures. It carefully blends traditional Indian characters into a mythopoetic recreation of the original tale. Vasudevan Nair, whose Malayalam language classic, Randamoozham , and its many translations including " The Lone Warrior " in English follow a similar pattern of plot-crafting. Frank McConnell, author of Storytelling and Mythmaking and professor of English, University of California , stated film is another "mythmaking" art, stating: "Film and literature matter as much as they do because they are versions of mythmaking.
Filmmaker George Lucas speaks of the cinematic storyline of Star Wars as an example of modern myth-making. In he told Bill Moyers , "With Star Wars I consciously set about to re-create myths and the classic mythological motifs. On the one hand, Frank McConnell says "it has passed, quicker than anyone could have imagined, from the status of film to that of legitimate and deeply embedded popular mythology.
Roger Ebert has observed regarding Star Wars , "It is not by accident that George Lucas worked with Joseph Campbell, an expert on the world's basic myths, in fashioning a screenplay that owes much to man's oldest stories. Regarding claims by Lucas himself, Steven Hart observes that Lucas didn't mention Joseph Campbell at the time of the original Star Wars ; evidently they met only in the s.
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Their mutual admiration "did wonders for [Campbell's] visibility" and obscured the tracks of Lucas in the "despised genre" science fiction; " the epics make for an infinitely classier set of influences". Some of the answers to those questions can be found only sixty years back. Where did Superman and the other superheroes come from?
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In his Encyclopedia of the Superheroes, Jeff Rovin correctly observes, "In the earliest days, we called them 'gods'. Superman , for example, sent from the "heavens" by his father to save humanity, is a messiah-type of character in the Biblical tradition. Neil Gaiman 's Sandman series created a mythology around the Endless , a family of god-like embodiments of natural forces like death and dreaming.
In classical music, Richard Wagner 's operas were a deliberate attempt to create a new kind of Gesamtkunstwerk "total work of art" , transforming the legends of the Teutonic past nearly out of recognition into a new monument to the Romantic project. In popular music, George Clinton 's Parliament - Funkadelic collective produced numerous concept albums which tied together in what is referred to as P-Funk mythology. While ostensibly known for improvised jamming, the rock group Phish first cemented as a group while producing leading member Trey Anastasio 's senior project in college, called The Man Who Stepped into Yesterday.
The song cycle features narration of major events in a mythical land called Gamehendge , containing types of imaginary creatures and primarily populated by a race called the "Lizards". It is essentially a postmodern pastiche, drawing from Anastasio's interest in musicals or rock operas as much as from reading philosophy and fiction.
The musical collective NewVillager constructed a mythology from Joseph Campell's Monomyth of which all their music, art, and videos serve to express. The band Rhapsody of Fire have created and tell the stories of a full-developed fantasy world with tales of epic wars between good and evil, although many elements are taken directly from Tolkien and other authors.
A mythology forming a greater whole that has been in development from the start of their career in The Mythopoeic Society exists to promote mythopoeic literature, partly by way of the Mythopoeic Awards. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses. Home FAQ Contact. Mythopoeia Wikipedia open wikipedia design. Narrative genre in modern literature and film.
For the poem by J. Tolkien , see Mythopoeia poem.
The Dark Side of Techno-Utopianism
This section does not cite any sources. It goes like this: Before Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press, books were precious objects, handwritten by scribes and available primarily in Latin. After Gutenberg, books became widely available, setting off a cascade of salutary movements and innovations, including but not limited to the Reformation, the Enlightenment, the steam engine, journalism, modern literature, modern medicine, and modern democracy.
For another, information wants to be free, but so does misinformation.
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The printing press empowered reformers; it also empowered hucksters, war profiteers, terrorists, and bigots. Nor did the printing press eliminate the problem of gatekeepers. It merely shifted the problem. The old gatekeepers were princes and priests. The new ones were entrepreneurs like Gutenberg and Caxton, or anyone who had enough money to gain access to their powerful technology.
From the beginning, Caxton was ambivalent about his status as a gatekeeper. He seemed uneasy even acknowledging his power. Should Caxton overrule the translator and restore the original text? Or should he let the censorship stand, implying that, even if such insults were acceptable in ancient Athens or medieval Cairo, they were now beyond the pale? After many sentences of ornate hand-wringing, he tried to have it both ways. He translated the misogynistic passage into English and reproduced it in full.
But, instead of placing it in its original context, in the Socrates chapter, he put it in the middle of his epilogue, as if to quarantine it. As soon as he made his decision, he attempted to rationalize it. He was merely serving his customers, he suggested: they deserved to hear all perspectives and make up their own minds.
Besides, anyone who was offended should blame Socrates, not Caxton. In the twentieth century, as early packet-switching networks evolved into the Internet, a generation of futurists and TED talkers emerged, explaining the new system to the laity in a spirit of wide-eyed techno-utopianism. They compared it to a superhighway, to a marketplace of ideas, to a printing press.
Anyone who was spending a lot of time on the Internet knew that many parts of it felt more like a dingy flea market, or like a parking lot outside a bar the moment before a fight breaks out. In the ensuing decade, a few nerdy young men created a handful of fast-growing social networks—Myspace, Twitter, Reddit , Facebook.
In the new industry of social media, the default setting was reversed. Steve Huffman, the co-founder and C. It was deeply ingrained in me that freedom of expression is important.
Let them post what they want to post.